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Accueil du site > Offres d’emploi > Stages > Développement d’outils analytiques avancés sur le synchrotron SOLEIL pour sonder localement la dynamique des interfaces dans les batteries tout solide au lithium

Développement d’outils analytiques avancés sur le synchrotron SOLEIL pour sonder localement la dynamique des interfaces dans les batteries tout solide au lithium

par Jonas Sottmann - 19 décembre 2019

Description of the project :

The clean production, storage and transportation of energy are among the major challenges we face today. Electrochemical energy storage will play an important role in the replacement of fossil fuels by intermittent renewable energy sources (wind, solar). Currently lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are used to power portable electronics and electric vehicles, and are considered as serious candidates for grid applications. Nevertheless, they constitute the limiting components in the energy transition in terms of energy density (driving range), cycle life, safety and cost. The development of improved rechargeable batteries thus represents a key technological challenge.

All solid state batteries (ASSBs) are promising candidates for the electrification of mobility, which is the next important frontier of electrochemical energy storage. Within the next decade several automobile manufacturers (e.g. Toyota, Volkswagen and others) intend to equip electric vehicles with ASSBs owing to several potential advantages over LIBs. The use of inorganic solid electrolyte (SE) in ASSBs removes safety concerns such as solvent leakage and flammability of liquid electrolytes used in conventional LIBs. It also offers the potential for substantial improvement of energy density by compatibility with high energy density electrode materials and by a simpler design of the battery pack that requires less passive components. The recent realization of lithium ionic conductors whose conductivity (10-2-10-3 S cm-1) is comparable to that of conventional liquid electrolytes ( 10-2 S cm-1) was a key technological advancement in ASSBs [2-4].

Despite the fact that several SEs with high enough ionic conductivity exist, ASSBs with long operational life are still scarce. Several challenging stability issues at the interfaces due to either chemical, electrochemical, or mechanical problems limiting the energy density and battery lifetime must be addressed before commercialization of ASSB technology [5-7]. Preventing the failure mechanisms in batteries requires that we understand the causes of degradation and how the various components of the battery interact with each other namely at the interfaces.

In this perspective, this Master project aims at developing a novel dedicated analytical tool at SOLEIL synchrotron, with high spatial and depth resolution, to investigate electrolyte/electrode interfaces in ASSBs during operation. Such local operando/in situ studies will reveal key information for the understanding of the reactivity (chemical, electrochemical) and dynamics (formation, evolution) at these hardly mastered interfaces and thereby allow for technological progress.

Specific techniques or methods :

You will contribute to the design and commissioning of apparatus at SOLEIL synchrotron that can be used to study interfacial (in)stability in ASSBs with spatial and temporal resolution.

Model systems will be characterized by electrochemical methods (galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and used to validate the proper functioning of the apparatus.

Depending on your background and research interest the synchrotron experiment will either be related to 3D imaging of the entire battery by X-ray computed tomography to investigate chemo-mechanical cross coupling and volume effects in ASSBs or X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to study the chemical stability of the solid electrolyte when it is in contact with lithium metal.

You will be hosted at SOLEIL synchrotron (www.synchrotron-soleil.fr) and interact with a team of researchers and engineers at SOLEIL synchrotron and PHENIX laboratory at Sorbonne University (www.phenix.cnrs.fr) which is part of the French network on electrochemical energy storage (RS2E, www.energie-rs2e.com).

Contact

Jonas SOTTMANN (jonas.sottmann@synchrotron-soleil.fr)

voir aussi sur le site de SOLEIL

References

  1. C. P. Grey and J. M. Tarascon, Nature Materials, 2016, 16, 45.
  2. N. Kamaya, K. Homma, Y. Yamakawa, M. Hirayama, R. Kanno, M. Yonemura, T. Kamiyama, Y. Kato, S. Hama, K. Kawamoto and A. Mitsui, Nature Materials, 2011, 10, 682.
  3. Y. Kato, S. Hori, T. Saito, K. Suzuki, M. Hirayama, A. Mitsui, M. Yonemura, H. Iba and R. Kanno, Nature Energy, 2016, 1, 16030.
  4. Y. Seino, T. Ota, K. Takada, A. Hayashi and M. Tatsumisago, Energy Environ. Sci., 2014, 7, 627.
  5. J. Janek and W. G. Zeier, Nature Energy, 2016, 1, 16141.
  6. K. Kerman, A. Luntz, V. Viswanathan, Y.-M. Chiang and Z. Chen, J. Electrochem. Soc., 2017, 164, A1731.
  7. J. Ma, B. Chen, L. Wang and G. Cui, J. Power Sources, 2018, 392, 94.
  8. Y. Kato, S. Hori, T. Saito, K. Suzuki, M. Hirayama, A. Mitsui A, M. Yonemura, H. Iba, R. Kanno, Nature Energy, 2016, 1, 16030.